# Geometrical Optics

﻿ALLIANZE COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES

Physics Laboratory Experiment

Geometrical Optics

Name:

INTRODUCTION

Chaffing is a force (measured in Newtons) acting along the surfaces of two things in physical contact that impedes the relative motion of these things (the movement of one with respect to the other). Consequently, it can be stated that friction always acts opposing the movement of the target or the push applied. You will discover two main types of friction:

Static friction: the frictional power that opposes any attempt to move a stationary thing along a surface. Kinetic friction: this frictional power opposes the sliding action of two surfaces chaffing together.         � Physically, friction arises from area roughness and attractive causes between the surfaces of two objects connected. The frictional force depends upon how hard the surfaces are pushed collectively: usually that quantity is usually calculated by simply determining the area ‘normal' power (Fn). The harder the surfaces are pushed together, the more surface contacts are made, increasing chaffing.           Interestingly, chaffing does not depend around the surface area from the objects connected. This is because because the area gets larger, the force per unit region gets smaller, decreasing the quantity of points in physical get in touch with. Some of the qualities of static and kinetic friction will be: Static scrubbing:     �

Kinetic friction:

Chosen as fs

Proportional to Fn(surface usual force)

Self-employed of region

Variable into a maximum value (which depends upon what surfaces)

Chosen as fk

Proportionate to Fn

Independent of region

Independent of speed

Always less than stationary friction

Let's look at the relationship among these two makes and the applied force that creates them (they may be thought of as " reaction" forces).   If you observe the graph below, it shows the static frictional force elevating to a optimum with the using a push (" applied force" ) then falling off dramatically to a smaller value (kinetic, or sliding, friction) once the object starts to move.   This picture is typical of many speak to surfaces.

We can assess this pressure in the pursuing way: as friction can be proportional for the force hitting the floors together (Fn), we can publish, f  Fn which means, f / Fn = regular

This continuous we call up the pourcentage of friction:  (the Greek notification ‘mu'). Hence we can write the equation since, f = ()(Fn)

Since stationary friction and kinetic friction are different, there exists a  for every:                                 s = agent of stationary friction                                 k = coefficient of kinetic (sliding) friction to ensure that we can create for each form of friction,

Stationary:                        fs� µk.

Apparatus:

i) A piece of hdf

ii) A wooden prevent

iii) Two sets of slotted mass with hooks

iv) A collection of pulley with clamp

v) Plasticine

Method:

Figure 2

Records: The hanging slotted mass can be changed by a weighing pan in order that a smaller mass can electronic added.

a) The mass of the solid wood block, mb was acessed.

b) The apparatus was set up such as Figure installment payments on your The thread from the block was made certain to be tangled up horizontally for the pulley.

c) The placed mass was added onto the hook slowly but surely until the solid wood block starts to slip. The overall mass, mh was recorded. The experiment was repeated 3 x to get the normal value of mh. Note: Mass was added carefully to avoid impulsive force.

d) Different public, mr was added onto the wooden stop and step (c) was repeated.

e) Stage (d) was repeated for at least five several values of mr.

f) A chart of fs against R was drawn where fs = mhg and Ur = (mr + mb)g. µs, the coefficient of static scrubbing was identified from the graph.

g) Stage (c) was repeated nevertheless a little force was applied to the wood block each and every time each mass was added. The mass, mh was written when the stop moved...

Recommendations: 1 . (Newton's Mechanics)

http://library.thinkquest.org/C0125108/eng/nor/page4-1.htm

2 . (Friction)

http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/decarlo/friction3.htm

3. College Physics Giambattista Richardson Publication

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